BSC (ANATOMY

REGULATIONS AND CURRICULUM FOR THE DEGREE OF BSc (HONS) IN ANATOMY

AIMS & OBJECTIVES
Human Anatomy is a difficult pre-clinical subject which is prerequisite to the understanding of clinical medicine. World wide very few scholars take up the discipline mainly due to the association with cadavers and the relative difficulty. It has the highest credit load in the whole of the medical Faculty.

The BSc Honours Degree Programme, in anatomy is designed to give a scientific education and training in Anatomy to include Histology, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy and Neuroanatomy.

The student shall study the Topographical Anatomy by dissecting a human cadaver.

Embryology shall help in the study of pre-natal and postnatal development and in analysing the normal relationship of the structures in the body as well as in understanding the malformations and their sequelae.

Histology and Cytology correlates structure and function and provide foundation for the understanding of Morbid Anatomy.

The Laboratory/Practical work on macroscopic and microscopic anatomy shall encourage self reliance for future professional competence.

The BSc students will undertake research projects under supervision This will offer the students opportunity to gain first hand experience on research methods.

Holders of BSc Anatomy are expected to be absorbed as Teachers/Graduate Assistants for research and teaching programmes in the Medical Schools/Colleges.

The course offers sufficient depth in the different fields of Anatomy to enable promising graduates to undertake Postgraduate studies for higher degrees like MSc, M Phil and PhD.

The medical and dental students can continue with their MBBS  and BDS courses after obtaining BSc (honours) in Anatomy as intercalated course.

In case of Medical and Dental students, such a course shall provide the knowledge of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology in greater depths for application in their professional career. They shall be better oriented in research and teaching as compared to those who do not under-go intercalated BSc course and will become extremely useful as teachers of Anatomy after their graduation either as future clinicians or as full time basic scientists.

COURSES

The BSc course will cover Cytology and Histology, Embryology, Genetics an Teratology, Osteology, Arthrology, Myology, Angiology, Neurology, Splanchnology, Endocrinology, Comparative Anatomy, Radiological Anatomy, Functional Anatomy, Living and Surface Anatomy and Recent Advances in Anatomy. At the same time training will be imparted in the Anatomical and Histological Techniques.

During the final year of studies, the candidates must work on some research project under supervision and submit a dissertation.

During the first three semesters, direct entry students will have teaching and training in physiology and Biochemistry. BSc (Anatomy programme shall also include a course in General Studies in Nigerian History and Culture. They will study the same courses as medical students p to their Second MBBS Professional Examinaton.

Seminar topics dealing with the major areas of Anatomical Sciences will be set by the staff members interested in particular fields and reading lists of the literature will be given, which will be presented in the Seminar.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

The following categories of students will be admitted for the BSc Honours in Anatomy course in the Faculty/College of Medical Sciences.

1.  Direct Entry:

For three years (six semesters) programme the candidates should have passed

OR

2.  Medical Students:

For Medical Students, the BSc Honours in Anatomy programme shall be for three semesters. The Admission requirements for such candidates shall be as follows:-

OR

3.  Dental Students

In case of Dental students studying for the degrees of BDS, they should be accepted for BSc Honours in Anatomy course after passing BDS Part I Examination. In their case the BSc programme shall last for two years or four semesters.

100 LEVEL - FIRST SEMESTER
COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
BIO 101 General Biology 4
CHE 101 General Physical Chemistry 3
CHE 103 Practical Physical Chemistry 1
MAT 101 Elementary Maths I 3
PHY 101 (M) Mechanics & Properties of Matter 3
PHY 103 (M) Electromagnetism & Modern Physics 3
PHY 104 (L) Basic Practical Physics 1
ZOO 102 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy 2
GST 101 Use of English 1
GST 102 Philosophy and Logic 1
GST 103 Nigerian Peoples and Culture 1
    23

SECOND SEMESTER
COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
BOT 103 Basic Microbiology 2
BIO 104 Genetics for Medical Students 4
BIO 105 Practical Biology 3
CHE 102 General Organic Chemistry 3
CHE 104 Practical Organic Chemistry 1
CHE 105 General Inorganic Chemistry 3
CHE 106 Practical Inorganic Chemistry 1
MAT 103 Elementary Maths II 3
PHY 102 Heat, Optics and Waves 3
PHY 104 (L) Basic Practical Physics 1
BIO 102 General Biology II 3
BIO 103 Basic Parasitology 3
GST 101 Use of English 1
GST 102 Philosophy and Logic 1
GST 103 Nigerian Peoples and Culture 1
GST 104 History and Philosophy of Science 2
    35

200 Level - FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 201 Topographic Anatomy 3
ANA 202 Histology and Cytology I 1
ANA 203 Osteology, dissections of the limbs, Radiological, surface and living Anatomy 3
ANA 204 Human Embryology and Congenital Malformations 1
BCH 211 Introductory Biochemistry 4
BCH 212 Intermediary Metabolism I 2
BCH 213 Experimental Biochemistry I 1
MPY 221 Introduction to Body Fluids, Internal Environment of the Body and Homeostasis, Nutrition and Metabolism 3
MPY 222 Circulatory and Respiratory System 3
MPY 223 Experimental Physiology I 1
COH 231 Human Ecology/Medical Sociology 1
CLD 241 Clinical Demonstrations 2
GST 002 Nigerian History and Culture 2
    27

200 Level - SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 205 Topographic Anatomy of Thorax and Abdomen 3
ANA 206 Histology and Cytology II 1
ANA 207 Osteology, Dissection of the Thorax and Abdomen, Radiological, surface and Living Anatomy 3
ANA 208 Human Embryology and Congenital Malformations II 1
BCH 214 Intermediary Metabolism II 7
BCH 215 Experimental Biochemistry II 1
MPY 224 Gastrointestinal and Urinary Systems 4
MPY 225 Humoral Control Mechanisms and Reproduction 3
MPY 226 Experimental Physiology II 1
COH 231 Demography and Biostatistics/Computers in Medicine 1
CLD 241 Clinical Demonstrations 2
GSS 002 Nigerian History and Culture 4
     

300 Level FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 301 Topographic anatomy of Head and Neck 3
ANA 302 Histology and Cytology II 2
ANA 303 Osteology, dissection and Head and Neck, Radiological surface and Living anatomy 6
ANA 304 Human Embryology and Congenital malformations 1
ANA 305 Neuroanatomy 2
BCH 311 Biochemistry of the Whole Organism 3
BCH 312 Experimental Biochemistry III 4
MPY 321 Nervous System and Muscle: Excitable tissue 4
MPY 322 Experimental Physiology III 3
COH 331 Environmental Health/Health Education & Social Medicine 1
CLD 341 Clinical Demonstrations 1
    30

300 Level - SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 311 Gross Anatomical/Museum Techniques 2
ANA 312 Research Methods 2
ANA 313 Advanced Neuroanatomy 2
ANA 314 Histological and Histochemical Techniques 2
ANA 315 Cell Biology and Ultrastructure 2
ANA 316 Clinical Anatomy and Introduction to Clinical examination OR Animal Breeding Technology 3
ANA 317 Human Reproductive technologies 2
    15

400 Level FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 411 Advanced Neuroanatomy II 2
ANA 412 Histological and Histochemical Techniques II 2
ANA 413 Developmental Mechanics 2
ANA 414 Teratology 2
ANA 415 Research Project 3
ANA 416 Comparative Anatomy 2
ANA 417 Genetics 1
ANA 418 Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering 3
    17

400 Level SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 421 Anthropology 3
ANA 422 Seminar 3
ANA 423 Computer 2
ANA 415 Research Project 6
ANA 424 Elective 3
    17

ELECTIVE COURSES

COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT LOAD
ANA 425 Radiological Anatomy 3
ANA 426 Electron microscopy 3
ZOO 304 Animal behaviour 3
ANA 427 Gross Veterinary Anatomy 3
     

STAFF LIST

NAME DESIGNATION SPECIALTY
Professor J.O. Ogunranti B Sc (Ife) MB ChB (Ife) Professor and Head of Department Anatomy
Dr S.J. Dafur BM, BCh (Jos) MSc (Lagos) Senior Lecturer Anatomy
Dr M.B.T. Umar BM BCh (Jos), MSc (ABU) Senior Lecturer Anatomy
Mr E.O. Ekwere BSc (Calabar), MSc (Calabar) Lecturer I Anatomy
Dr R.T. McNeil BM BCh (Jos), MSc (Lagos) Lecturer I Anatomy
Dr E.S. Mador MBBS (Jos) Lecturer II Anatomy
Dr A.I. Shugaba MBBS Lecturer II Anatomy
Professor G.I. Ubom BSc, PhD Professor Biochemistry
Professor G.I. Adoga BSc PhD Professor Biochemistry
Dr O Ladeji BSc, MSc (Lagos), PhD (Jos) Research Reader Biochemistry
Dr (Mrs) V Onwuliri BSc, MSc (Jos), PhD (Jos) Reader Biochemistry
Dr (Mrs) R Aliyu BSc (ABU), MSc (Jos), PhD (Jos) Senior Lecturer Biochemistry
Mrs M. Solomon BSc, MSc Lecturer II Biochemistry
Dr A.B. Adelaiye Visiting Scholar (Reader) Physiology
Mr K Amadi BSc, MSc Senior Lecturer Physiology
Dr S.O. Odeh BM BCh (Jos), MSc (Jos) Senior Lecturer Physiology
Dr G.U. Egesie BM BCh (Jos), MSc (Jos) Senior Lecturer Physiology
Dr S.A.R. Ogwuche Lecturer II Physiology
Dr K.A. Ibrahim MBBS Lecturer II Physiology
Dr V.E. Pam Lecturer II Physiology
Dr A.M. Sabo Lecturer II Physiology
Professor J.A. Idoko MBBS (ABU), FMCP Professor Medicine
Professor A.O. Malu ABU, FMCP Professor Medicine
Dr C. Ukoli MBBS, FMCP Senior Lecturer Medicine
Dr E.N. Okeke MBBS, FMCP Senior Lecturer Medicine
Dr J.E. Ekedigwe MBBS FWACP Lecturer I Medicine/Radiology
Dr C.E. Kaneng MBBS, FWACP Lecturer I Medicine
Dr F.H. Peupet MBBS FMCP Lecturer I Medicine
Dr S.D. Pam MBBS FACP Lecturer I Medicine
Dr E Isamade MBBS FWACP Lecturer I Medicine
Dr I.E. Agaba Lecturer I Medicine
Dr A.O. Oche Lecturer I Medicine
Professor C.H. Ihezue MD, FRCS (Edinburgh & Glasgow), FMCS (Nig) FWACS (West Africa), FICS (Chicago) Professor Surgery
Dr B.T. Ugwu Reader Surgery
Dr G Igun MBBS, FWACS Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr S.S. Orkar Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr H.C. Nwadiaro Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr M.V. Ramyil Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr D Iya Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr N.K. Dakum Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr A.Z. Sule Senior Lecturer Surgery
Dr L.B. Chirdan Lecturer I Surgery
Dr M. Yilkudi Lecturer I Surgery
Dr I.I. Onche Lecturer I Surgery
Dr A.F. Uba Lecturer I Surgery
Dr A.T. Kidmas Lecturer I Surgery
Dr S.J. Yiltok Lecturer I Surgery
Dr S.S. Gontor Lectuer II Surgery
Dr A.I. Zoakah MBBS (ABU) FWACP Reader Surgery
Dr M.O. Okoronkwo MSc (Jos), PhD (Jos) Research Reader Community Health
Dr C. Ogbonna MBBS FMCPH Senior Lecturer Community Health
Dr Z.M. Kpamor MBBS, FWACP Lecturer II Community Health
     

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION

200 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

ANA 201 Topographic anatomy of Limbs (3 units)
Objective of this course is to provide an in depth knowledge of structures of the human limbs together with their bones. This would cover the following- General Introduction; Osteology; Axilla and its contents; Breast; Shoulder region; Upper arm; cubital fossa; Forearm and hand; Joints of Upper Limb; Front and medial side of thigh; Gluteal region; Back of thigh and popliteal fossa; Leg and foot; Joints of lower limb; Arches of foot.
ANA 202 Histology and Cytology I (1 unit)
Microscpic strucute of teh Cell. various types of tissues of the body- epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. Histology of heart and blood vessels. Respiratory tract and reticuloendothelial system.
ANA 203 Osteology, dissection of the limbs, Radiological, Surface and living anatomy (3 units)
Dissectionof the pecoral region and breast; axilla; shoulder and scapular regions; arm; foream and hand; joints of upper upper limb. Dissection of gluteal region and thigh; popliteal fossa; leg and foot; joints of lower limb. Radioraphic anatomy of the bones; join of limbs. Living anatomy of limbs.
ANA 204 Human Embryology and Congenital Malformations (1 unit)
Origin of germ cells; spermatogenesis and oogenesis; sex determination; menstruation; ovarian cycle and ovulation. Fertilisation, cleavage and gastrulation formation of germ layers; notochord and neural tube; fetal membranes, placenta; fetal circulation and changes after birth. Development of bones and their anomalies; development of limb buds; Development of cardiovascular system, respiratory system and their anomalies.
BCH 211 Introductory Biochemistry (4 units)
Properties of amino acids, polypeptides and proteins; conformation of proteins; enzyme catalysis, classification and properties of enzymes; coenzymes; elementary enzyme kinetics. Properties of simple and complex carbohydrates and their functions as energy stores or glycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and sterols with special reference to their ampipathic properties. Structure of membranes. Chemistry of carbohydrate, non, di and polysaccharides, glycoproteins and bacterial cell wall. Chemistry of nucleic acids, bases , nucleosides and nucleotides, structure and properties of RNA and DNA. Chromosome structure.
BCH 211 Introductory Biochemistry (4 units)
Acid-base Chemistry, Chemical kinetics and orders of reactions, organic reactions. Chemistry of amino acids and proteins. Chemistry of Carbohydrates. Chemistry of Lipids. Chemistry and biological functions of Nucleic acids. Enzymes and biocatalysis including coenzymes. Structure and properties of biological membranes including nature and thermodynamics of transmembrane transport of substances.
MPY 201 Introduction to Physiology (3 units)
Description and functional organization of the human body - cells as units of the body,  internal environment,   homeostatic mechanisms of the systems,  regulatory systems of the body.  The cells and its functions; - organization of the cells (structural),  functional systems of the cell.  Transport Mechanism across the cell membrane,  Diffusion,  Active transport, Specialized transport phenomenon. Cell Genetics, protein synthesis,  cell differentiation,  cell reproduction.
MPY 202

Blood  (3 units)
Red blood cells (Erythrocytes); Erythropoeisis, Destruction of RBC, Anaemia,  Polycythemias. White Blood Cells (leukocytes),  General  Characteristics of  Leukocytes.  WBC production,         Properties of WBC, The reticuloendothelial system,  Inflammation and functions of WBC,    Leukaemias. Immunity and Allergy, Classification of immunity, Description of the process of immunity and allergy,  Antigens/Antibodies,  The Lymphoid tissues in immunity,  Hypersensitivity reactions,  Interferon,  Allergies in the normal and the allergic,  Blood Grouping Systems,  Antigenicity and immune reactions of blood,  ABO blood groups,   Rhesus blood groups,   Other Blood factors,  Transfusion including transfusion reactions,   Introduction to tissue and organ transplantation. Haemostasis  and  Blood coagulation,  Events in Haemostasis,  Mechanism of Blood Coagulation,  Conversion prothrombin to thrombin, Conditions that cause excessive bleeding in humans, Thromboembolic conditions,  Blood coagulation tests.

MPY 203

Excitable Tissues     (3 units)

Excitable membranes and Neuromuscular events.  Genesis and conduction of action potentials,  Nerves, Muscles.  Synapses and transmitters.  Synaptic excitation and inhibition.  Reflexology.   Sensory Receptors.

MPY 204

Body fluids  (3 units)
Capillary Dynamics and Fluid Exchange between the blood and Interstitial fluid, Blood flow in capillaries,  Exchange of nutrients and other substances across the barriers, Distribution of fluid volumes,  The lymphatic system and interstitial fluid Dynamics; The lymphatic system,         Control of interstitial fluid protein concentration, Mechanism of Oedema formation, The special fluid system of the body, CSF, Intraocular fluid, Fluid circulation in other spaces e.g. pleural cavity, Pericardial cavity, peritoneal cavity, synovial cavities etc, Osmotic Equilibrium between ECF and ICF, Total Body water, Body fluid compartments, Measurements of Body fluid volumes, Constituents of ECF and ICF, Osmotic equilibrium and fluid shifts, Volume and Osmolatity changes in ECF and ICF, Physiological Solutions-Clinical Uses/Replacement.

MPY 205

Cardiovascular system    (3 units)
The heart as a pump;  Rhythmic Excitation of the heart; The Normal Electrocardiogram; Electrocardiographic Interpretation in cardiac Myopathies, Electrocardiographic  interpretation of Cardiac Arrhythmias; Physical principles of Blood;The Systemic Circulation; Local control of Blood Flow (Nerves ad Humoral Regulation); Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure; Cardiac output and venous return; The Pulmonary Circulation; The Coronary Circulation; Cardiac Failure; Heart Sounds; Circulatory Shock (Physiology and Management); Muscle Blood flow/ other specific sites. 

MPY 206 Experimental Physiology I
Experimental techniques and methods to analyse aspects of the functional organisation of tissues, organs and systems. Tutorials.
MPY 206

Respiratory system (3 units)
Pulmonary  ventilation, Mechanism of Respiration, Pulmonary volumes and capacities, The minute respiratory volume-RR,TV, Alveolar ventilation, Functions of Respiratory System, Artificial Respiration, Physical principles of Gaseous Exchange, The Physics of Gases, Composition of Alveolar Air, Diffusion of Gases through Respiratory membrane. Transport of Oxygen  and Carbon dioxide in the Blood and Body fluids, Pressure Differences of Oxygen and CO2 from the lungs to the tissues, Transport of oxygen in the blood, Transport  of CO2 in the blood, The Respiratory  Exchange Ratios. Regulation of Respiration, The respiratory centre, Humoral Regulation of Respiration, Basic mechanism of Humoral stimulation of the Respiratory centre,
The chemoreceptor system for control of respiration, Regulation of Respiration during Exercise, Abnormalities of Respiratory control. Respiratory Insufficiency, Methods for studying Respiratory disorders, Physiologic types of Respiratory insufficiency, Physiologic peculiarities of specific pulmonary disorders, Hypoxia, Hypercapnia, Oxygen therapy, Entrapped Air/its absorption.

COM  202 Human Ecology/Social Medicine (1 unit)
History of Social Medicine
; Social Structure/Class, Culture and Health;  Behaviour, Illness and Health;  Stages of Human Development; Life events, Illness and Health; Life Style, Illness and Health; Psychosomatic Illnesses; Classification and Causes of Handicaps; Programmes for the Handicaps; Substance/Drug abuse classification, dependency diagnosis and treatment; Behaviour therapies/behaviour modification and behaviour diagnosis; Social Welfare Services in Nigeria and other countries; Psychology of normal person. Intelligence; Behaviour; Perception; Attitude. Sociological perspective
Ecological concepts; Components of the ecology (physical, biological and social); Manís interaction with environment; Global Warming: Concepts and Principles; Effects of Global Warming on Health.
CLD 241 Clinical Demonstrations (2 units)
Clinical demonstrations of some important disease by integrated  discussion in all preclinical subjects.
GSS 002 Nigerian History and Culture (2 units)
The concept of History and Sources of African History. Origins of Nigerian Peoples and their history in precolonial times. The Atlantic Slave trade. The 19th century Jihad. Explorers and Missionaries. Nigeria during Colonial Times. Unification of Nigeria. The Rise of Nigerian Nationalism. Attainment of Independence. Post-Independence Nigeria.

SECOND SEMESTER

ANA 205 Topographic anatomy of Thorax and Abdomen
Thoracic walls; Mediastinum; Pericardium and Heart; Pleura and Lungs; Emphasis is laid on the functional and applied aspects. Abdominal wall and external hernias; external genital organs; peritoneum; Gastrointestinal tract and the associated glands; Diaphragm; Urogenital system; Perineum.
ANA 206 Histology and Cytology II (1 unit)
Histology of gastrointestinal tract and associated glands; Urinary organs; Male and female genital organs.
ANA 207 Osteology, Dissection of the Thorax and Abdomen, Radiological, Surface and Living Anatomy (3 units)
Dissection of thorax and thoracic cage; Osteology of lumbar vertebrae, sacrum male and female pelvis; Anterior abdominal wall including inguinal canal. External genital organs; Abdominal cavity, peritoneum; Abdominal visceral Posterior abdominal wall; Diaphragm. Pelvic wall and viscera; Perineum; Radiographic anatomy of thorax and abdomen.
ANA 208 Human Embryology and Congenital malformations II (1 unit)
Development of kidney; ureter; urinary bladder and urethra and their malformations; Prostate gland; Uterus, uterine tubes; vagina; external genitalia both male and female. Development and descent of testis and ovary;
BCH 214 Intermediary Metabolism II (6 units)
Thermodynamics, bioenergetics and biochemical Oxidation.  Muscle biochemistry including functional Specialization of cell structure and metabolism; Intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates.  Liver biochemistry including functional Specialization of cell structure; Nitrogen metabolism; Lipid metabolism. Metabolism of nucleic acids.  Biosynthesis of Proteins.  Bone and connective tissue biochemistry. Blood biochemistry including haem biosynthesis And catabolism, blood clotting; functions of Haemoglobin. Gastrointestinal tract including nature and Mechanism of secretion.  Catabolic pathways including xenobiotics and forensic biochemistry.  Biochemical genetics, inborn errors of metabolism; Genetic engineering.
MPY 212

The Gastrointestinal tract    (3 units)
G.I Mobility; General principles of Intestinal mobility, Functional Types of movements in the GIT, -Ingestion of food (Mastication, Deglutition), Motor functions of the stomach, Movement of the colon, Defaecation, Autonomic influences on bowels Activity. Secretory functions of the GIT; General principles of G.I secretion, secretion of saliva, Oesophageal secretion, Gastric secretion (characteristics and Regulation), pancreatic secretion, Biliary secretion, Secretion of small intestine, Secretions of the large intestine. Digestion and Absorption in the GIT, Digestion of the various foods, Basic principles of G.I Absorption, Absorption in the small intestine, Absorption in the large intestine.  Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Disorders of swallowing, Disorders of the stomach, Disorders of the small intestine, Disorders of the large intestine,  General disorders of the GIT.

MPY 213

Renal system  (3 units)
Formation  of Urine,
Physiologic Anatomy of the kidney, Basic theory of Nephron Function, Renal Blood flow and pressure, Glomerular filtration/filtrate, Reabsorption  and secretion in the tubules, The concept of plasma clearance, Effect of Tubular load transfer maximum on urine constituents. Renal mechanisms for concentrating and Diluting the urine, The counter-current  mechanisms, Excretion of urine constituents, Fluid volume Excretion, Autoregulation of RBF and GRF,  Intrarenal Function of the Renin-Anglotensin system. Renal Regulation of Blood Volume, ECF volume and ECF composition: control of Blood volume control of ECF volume control of ECF constituents. Acid-Base Balance: function of Acid-Base Buffer, respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance,  renal regulation of Acid Hydrogen ion concentration, clinical abnormalities of Acid-Base Balance. Micturition/Renal Disease/Diuresis: Physiologic Anatomy of the Bladder and its nervous connnections, Transport of urine through the ureters, The maturation reflex, Abnormalities of maturation,  Renal Diseases (e,g, Renal failures, Hypertensive kidney diseases, Nephrotic syndrome, tabular disorders),  Renal function tests, Diuretics and their mechanism of Actions.

MPY 214

Endocrinology (3 units)
Introduction,  Nature of a Hormone (including classification), Mechanisms of Hormonal Action,      Intercellular Hormonal Mediators,  Actions of steroid Hormones, The pituitary Gland, the Hypothalamus, The adenohypophysis and its Regulation,   The posterior pituitary Gland/Hormones.  The Thyroid Hormones, Formation and secretion of the Thyroid Hormones, Functions of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion,  Interrelationship of the Thyroid Gland and other Endocrine Glands,   Diseases of the Thyroid. Adrenocortical Hormones,  Functions of the mineralocorticoids,  Functions of the Glucocorticoids, Chemistry of Adrenocortical secretion, The Adrenal Androgens,   Abnormalities of Adrenocortical Secretion.  Insulin Glucagon and Diabetes Mellitus, Effect of Insulin on Carbohydrate Metabolism, Glucagon and its functions, Regulation of Blood glucose concentration, Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperinsulinism, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin:, Calcium and phosphate in the ECF and plasma.  
Function of Vitamin D,
Bone and its relationships with Extracellular calcium and phosphates, Parathyroid Hormone,  Calcitonin, Control of calcium ion concentration, Physiology of parathyroid and Bone Disease, Physiology of the Teeth.

MPY 215

Reproduction (3 units)
1.Reproductive Functions of the male and the male sex Hormones, Spermatogenesis, The male sexual Acts, Testosterone and other male sex Hormone, Abnormalities of male sexual functions. Sexual Functions in the Female and the Female Hormones, Physiologic Anatomy of the female sexual organs, The female Hormonal system, The monthly, ovarian cycle and the function the Gonadotropic Hormones,  Regulation of female monthly Rhythm,  Interrelationship of the ovaries with other Glands,  Abnormalities of secretion by the ovaries, The female sexual Act/Fertility. Pregnancy and Lactation:, Maturation of the Ovum and oogenesis, Fertilization of the ovum/implantation, Early intrauterine Nutrition of the Embryo, Function of  the placenta, Hormonal factors in pregnancy, Response of the mother to pregnancy, Abnormal Responses of the mother to pregnancy, Parturition, Lactation. 
Special features of foetal and Neonatal Physiology, Growth and functional development of the foetus, Adaptation to extra uterine life,
 Special problems of prematurity, Special functional problem of the Neonate, Growth and Development of the child.

MPY 216 Experimental Physiology II
Experimental techniques and methods to analyse aspects of the functional organisation of tissues, organs and systems. Tutorials.
COM 301

BioBiostatistics and Demography (1 unit)
Collection and organization of data
; Scales of Measurement; Presentation of data; Measures of central tendency;  Measures of variability;  Probability and inductive statistics; Normal Distribution; Test Statistics; Parametric tests; Non-parametric tests; Correlation and regression Application of computers in medicine/medical informatics.
Sources of population data;
Sources of health and vital statistics;  Demographic components, Demographic theories, measurement of fertility and mortality. Population dynamics, structure and growth; Standardization of Rates.

CLD 241 Clinical Demonstrations (2 units)
Clinical Demonstrations of some important diseases by integrated discussions in all preclinical subjects.
GSS 002 Nigerian History and Culture II (4 units)
Concept of Culture. Dynamic aspects of Culture and its Hybridization. Variant and Cultural Uniformity in Nigerian Culture. Cultural Symbiosis. Cultural Revolution and Cultural Nationalism. Negritude. Oral Folklore and Nigerian Culture.
   

300 Level - FIRST SEMESTER

ANA 301 Topographic Anatomy of Head and Neck ( 3units)
Scalp, temple and face; salivary glands; thyroid, parathyroid and thymus. Deep structures of the neck; Infratemporal fossa (mouth, pharynx and mechanism of deglutition; larynx, ear and eye. Lymphatic drainage of head and neck.
ANA302 Histology and Cytology III (2 units)
Endocrine system; pituitary gland ; thyroid gland; parathyroid gland; salivary glands, parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. Oral cavity; tongue; tonsil; pharynx.
ANA 303 Osteology, Dissection and Head and Neck, Radiological Surface and Living Anatomy (3 Units)
Cervical vertebrae; cranial bones, mandible, facial skeleton. Scalp, temple and face; cervical plexus; superficial and deep dissection of neck. Salivary glands; Temporal and infratemporal regions; mouth, pharynx; palate; nasal cavity; larynx; tongue; tonsils; Ear; eye ball; Nerves of neck; lymphatics and lymph glands of the neck; hypophysis cerebri; cranial cavity. Dural venous sinuses; hypophysis cerebri; cranial cavity; dural venous sinuses, meningeal vessels. Radiographic anatomy of skull and paranasal sinuses; Surface anatomy of major vessels and glands.
ANA 304 Human Embryology and Congenital malformations (1 units)
Branchial arches and congenital anomalies including branchial fistula. Development of face, nose palate, mouth, pharynx, tongue, tonsils and salivary glands. Development of endocrine glands, pituitary and suprarenal and thyroid glands and their malformations; Development of Eye and ear.
ANA 305 Neuroanatomy (2 units)
Neurocytology; neurohistology; Neuroembryology, Development of Nervous system- neural tube and its subdivisions, neural crest and its derivatives; Hydrocephalus, Anencephaly, spina bifida occulta and manifesta; Meningocoele and meningomyelocele.. Peripheral Nervous system; Autonomic Nervous system. Brain and meninges; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); cisternal and lumbar punctures. Blood supply to the Brain and Spinal cord. Spinal cord to include composition, regional variation and cell groups of the spinal cord; Fibre tracts of the spinal cord; medulla, pons, cerebellum; midbrain. Cranial nerves and their nuclei. Dural venous sinuses. Diencephalon, pituitary and pineal gland, cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, rhinencephalon, olfactory pathways, auditory pathways and visual pathways.
BCH 311 Biochemistry of the Whole Organism (4 units)
Blood Biochemistry including haem. Biosynthesis and catabolism, blood, clotting, functions of haemoglobin.   Catabolic pathways including Xenobiotics and Forensic biochemistry. Hormones and Metabolic control.       Nutritional Biochemistry.  Neurochemistry. Immunochemistry. Biochemical genetics, inborn errors of metabolism; Genetic engineering. Antimetabolites. Introduction to basic research methodology in Biochemistry. Introduction to basic computer in Biochemistry. Ethics in Biochemistry.
MPY 301

Nervous system (6 units)
(A) C.N.S.
Organisation of the Nervous System. Transmission and processing of information in the Nervous system.Sensory Receptors. Somatic Sensations. Motor functions of the spinal cord/cord Reflex. Motor functions of the Brain stem and Basal Ganglia. Cortical Cerebellar Control of  Motor Functions. The Reticular Activating System. The Cerebral Cortex. The Limbic System.
(B) A.N.S. General Organisation of the Autonomic Nervous system. Basic Characteristics and sympathetic and parasympathetic Functions. Autonomic reflexes. Basic Pharmacology of the ANS.

MPY 303 Nutrition & Metabolism (2 units)
Metabolism of Carbohydrate and formation of ATP- 
Release of Energy from the Glucose molecule (e.g. Glycolytic pathway; phosphogluconate pathway).  Lipid Metabolism. Protein Metabolism. The Liver and Biliary System.  Energetic and Metabolic Rate. Dietary Balances (Regulation of Feeding) Vitamins and Mineral Metabolism:
MPY 304

SPECIAL SENSES PHL 304 (3 credits)
Optics of Vision. Physical principles of optics, The optics of the eye  Optical instruments. Receptor and functions of the Retina.  The Neurophysiology of VisionThe Sense of Hearing. The Chemical senses Ė Taste and Smell:

MPY 305 PHL 305: Experimental Physiology III
Experimental techniques and methods to analyse aspects of the functional organisation of tissues, organs and systems. Tutorials.
COM 303

TheEnvironment and health. (3 units)
Components of environmental health.
Water supply and waste disposal. Housing and health. Food Hygiene. Vector control. Medical Toxicology. Legislation and environmental health.

CLD 341 Clinical Demonstration (2 units)
Clinical Demonstration of some important diseases by integrated discussions on all preclinical subjects

300 Level - SECOND SEMESTER

ANA 311 Gross anatomical/museum Techniques 2 units
Fixation (embalming of bodies; preparation and presentation of museum specimen; preparation of casts of the blood vessels; preparation of stained brain slices; preparation of skeleton.
ANA 312 Research Methods (2 unit)
Scientific methodology; Modern methods of research in anatomy, gross, microscopic , semimicroscopic. Experimental surgery; histochemistry; ultrastructural methods; Cell and tissue culture; Autoradiography.
ANA 313 Advanced Neuroanatomy I (3 units)
Sections of brain and spinal cord; The staining of brain slices; Neurohistochemical and neurohistological techniques; Stereotaxic techniques, Neuroembryology; surgical, medical and anesthetic neuroanatomy; molecular neuroanatomy; Paraneurology.
ANA 314 Histological and Histochemical Techniques (3 units)
Origins of histology and histochemistry. Theoretical and practical studies of histochemistry and histology. Various stains in histology; Histochemical techniques for demonstrating carbohydrates, proteins, fat enzymes minerals and pigments. Quantitative histochemistry; Ultrahistochemistry.
ANA 315 Cell Biology and Ultrastructure  (1 unit)
Structure of all cellular organelle and their appearances under the electron microscope; Cellular and molecular endocrinology; Ultrastructure of all individual cells. Heteroduplex mapping; Ultrastructure of DNA molecule.
ANA 316 Clinical Anatomy and Introduction to Clinical Examination
Anatomy of all clinical examinations; anatomy of all surgical incisions; surface clinical anatomy, clinical organology; clinical examinations to be taught in Introductory clinical courses.
ANA 317 Reproductive Technologies (1 unit)
Modern assisted reproductive technologies in animals and human to include in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, intrafallopian gamete transfers, egg-oviduct coculture; zenogenous egg incubation, artificial insemination, sperm and oocyte maturation in vitro.
   
   

400 lEVEL - FIRST SEMESTER

ANA 411 Advanced Neuroanatomy II  (3 units)
Gross and microscopic dissections of the human brain; Diffuse neuroendocrine system; Chemoarchitectonics; Experimental neurosurgery.
ANA 412 Histological and Histochemical TEchniques (3 units)
Cytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry; Immunocytochemistry; Ultrastructural cytochemistry; APUD and Clinical Cytochemistry; In situ hybridisation histochemistry.
ANA 413 Developmental Mechanics (2 units)
Experimental Embryology; Embryonal manipulations and cloning; Chimaerism; Oviductology and early pregnancy science; Pattern formation and positional information; Developmental cues; Organisation of embryo and primitive streak; French Flag problem; Catastrophic theory ; Growth and differentiation; Embryonal growth factors and oncogenes; Morphogenesis and histogenesis.
ANA 414 Teratology (2units)
Principles of teratogenesis; Human congenital abnormalities; experimental teratogenesis; Applications in drug testing and pregnancy.
ANA 415 Research project (3 units)
Supervised research work in the fields of embryology, histology, gross anatomy, comparative anatomy or molecular biology.
ANA 416 Comparative Anatomy (3 units)
Animal Kingdom; introduction to vertebrate morphology and taxonomy. Development of bipedalism, increasing brain size, placentation, visual acuity, brachiation; phonation and speech, skull sizes and structure, fossil ; history of man.
ANA 417 Genetics (2 units)
Advanced concept in molecular genetics and mendelism; Concept of genes and transgenic organisms; sex determination and differentiation, linkage, crossing-over and chromosome mapping; mutagenesis; DNA repair, ctogenetics and karyotyping- structure, modification and variation in chromosome number.  Multiple gene inheritance; genetic disease and modern gene therapy. Transplantation genetics
ANA 418 Molecular biology & Genetic Engineering (2 units)
DNA structure; reverse transcriptase enzyme and genes. DNA, DNA polymorphism, DNA sequencing, Southern blot, Northern and Western blots; polymerase chain reaction; gene cloning; cloning-to-clinic; Recombinant DNA products.
   

400 Level - SECOND SEMESTER

ANA 421 Anthropology (4 units)
Evolution and anthropology; races; physical characteristics; genetics of population; anthropometry; paleoanthropology; social and cultural anthropology. Medical anthropology and modern schools of clinical anthropology.
ANA 422 Seminars (3 units)
Students are to present seminars in the following areas
(a)  Advanced concepts in applied anatomy
(b)  Cell Biology and Ultrastructure
(c)  Recombinant DNA/Genetic engineering to involve literature search and critical review of selected topics in the areas.
ANA 423 Computer (2 units)
Programming in Basic. Soft ware applications ; CD-ROM, Multimedia systems in anatomy Education.
   

ELECTIVES

ANA 425 Radiological and Imaging Anatomy (3 units)
X-ray anatomy of sclerous and soft tissues, contrast studies , ultrasound, thermography, CAT scan and magnetic resonance imaging correlated with sectional anatomy of all parts of the body.
ANA 426 Electron microscopy (3 units)
Principles of electron microscopy and tissue preparation. Ultramicrotomy, staining procedures, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron microscopy in heretoduplex mapping and molecular biology.
ZOO 304 Animal Behaviour (3 units)
Instinct and learning, motivation, aggression, conflict behaviour, courtship, hormones, migration and navigation, social organization in invertebrates and vertebrates.
ANA 427 Gross Veterinary Anatomy (3 units)
Gross Anatomy of common domestic animals
   

EXAMINATIONS

COURSE EXAMINATIONS
End of course examination will be adopted for all courses together with continuous assessment for each course and will consist of the following
(a)  Written Examination (Essay and MCQ)  - 35%
(b)  Practical Examination  25%
(c)  Continuous assessment (40%)

Grading system for course examination shall be by Grade Point averages (see table)

DEGREE EXAMINATION
Written Examination 45%
There will be three papers of three hours each at the end of the BSc (Anatomy) course.

Paper I  -   150 MCQ  (True-False items)

Paper II   -   Seven essays out of which five are to be attempted in ANA 311, 312, 314, 317, 412, 416, 418, 423.

Paper III  -   Seven essays out of which five are to be attempted in ANA 313, 315, 316, 412, 413, 414, 417, 421.

Practicals  -  25%

Oral Examinations and Dissertation and other areas 15%

Cumulative Grade Point average  (CGPA) will be computed from all the above in order to obtain class of degree. A minimum of CGPA of 2 is required for graduation.

PROBATION

Probation status will be granted to students whose CGPA is between 1.50-1.99 at the end of a year of study. A candidate whose CGPA falls below 1.50 will be asked to withdraw from the programme.

REPEAT
There will be no resit examinations; but students will be allowed to repeat failed course unit(s) and the grade points earned will be added to the CGPA.

DURATION OF DEGREE PROGRAMME
Four years is the minimum for the award of degree of BSc (Anatomy) after JAMB admission. A student shall however not spend more than 6 (six) years in completing the programme. The minimum NUC standard is 120 units.

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

External examiners will be required to examine students for their oral examinations and to assess final year courses, project and certify overall performance of graduating students.

GRADING SYSTEM FOR BSc (ANATOMY)
 

(i)
Credit units
(ii)
Percentage scores
(iii)
Letter Grades
(iv)
Grade Point (GP)
(v)
Grade P. Ave.(GPA)
(vi)
Cumulative Ave.A.(CGPA)
(vii)
Class of Degree
Vary according to contact hours assigned to each course per week per semester and according to work load carried by student 70-100 A 5 Derived multiplying I and IV and dividing by total credit units 4.50-5.00 First Class
60-69 B 4 3.50-4.49 2nd Class Upper
50-59 C 3 2.40-3.49 2nd Class Lower
45-49 D 2 1.50-2.39 Third Class
40-44 E 1 1.00-1.49 Pass
0-39 F 0 0.99 Fail